A medical procedure known as angioplasty is used to open up a blocked or narrowed artery around the heart. Percutaneous coronary intervention, or PCI, is another name for angioplasty.
In this article, we will discuss what angioplasty or PCI is, its types, risks, and recovery.
WHAT IS ANGIOPLASTY?
The term angioplasty derives from the words “angio” which means “blood vessel” and “plasty” which means “to open up”, whereas the “P” in PCI stands for percutaneous, or “through the skin,” and the term “coronary” means to the location of blood vessels surrounding the heart.
Angioplasty is a common treatment for heart attacks and coronary heart disease (CHD) (acute coronary syndrome). There is a buildup of plaque, or atherosclerosis, on the narrow artery walls in these conditions that can become blocked as plaque builds up.
During a heart attack, the plaque may rupture, spilling cholesterol into an artery and possibly causing a clot, which would cut off blood flow. A doctor makes an incision in the groin or wrist and inserts a tube, or catheter, into an artery during a standard angioplasty. The catheter is then threaded upwards into the affected blood vessel near the heart. The catheter usually has an inflatable balloon inside it that displaces the plaque or clot, effectively opening the artery. Angioplasty is less invasive than heart surgery because it does not require opening the chest.
Angioplasty may be used to:
• treat an abnormal stress test
• increase blood flow to the heart
• reduce chest pain or angina
• improve cardiac muscle blood supply during or following a heart attack
• support more activity for people who have had a heart attack
Angioplasty is divided into two types:
• Balloon angioplasty, which involves removing plaque from an artery using the pressure of an inflating balloon. Unless doctors are unable to place a stent in the required position, this is rarely done alone.
• Stent placement in the artery, which involves inserting a wire mesh tube, or stent, into the artery. After angioplasty, stents help to keep an artery from narrowing again. Stents can be made of bare metal or with a medication coating. Drug-eluting stents (DES) are stents that include medication and are less likely to clog up again.
RISKS INVOLVED IN ANGIOPLASTY
Angioplasty is, on the whole, a safe procedure with few risks. According to one estimate, complications occur in 5 out of every 100 people, with the rate being lower in super specialty hospitals and multi-specialty centres.
Although angioplasty complications are uncommon, they can include:
• extended catheter blood in the groin or wrist
• blood vessel, kidney or artery damages
• an allergic reaction to the dye
• chest pain
• arrhythmia, or irregular heart rhythm
• a blockage requiring emergency bypass
• blood clot
• a heart attack
• an artery or major blood vessel tear or damage
The procedure has a higher risk of complications in older people, as well as those who have the following conditions:
• Cardiovascular disease
• multiple artery blockages
• chronic kidney disease
Restenosis, plaque shift, or stent thrombosis, which is a clot in the stent, are all possibilities for the artery to become blocked with plaque again.
Recovery from heart attack after this stent procedure
The cardiologist removes the catheters and bandages after the stent procedure is completed. The area where the catheters entered the body is prone to soreness, bruising, and possibly bleeding.
The post-procedure visit is an important part of the treatment. The doctor will assess the patient’s progress, make any necessary medication adjustments, and develop a long-term treatment plan for their cardiovascular health.
Doctors use this method, a minimally invasive procedure, to clear clogged arteries and improve heart blood flow. Angioplasty is a safe and less complicated procedure used to treat acute heart problems that is frequently recommended by doctors globally to cure blockage in heart arteries. This angioplasty procedure, as well as the angioplasty recovery procedure, can be recommended by the Make A Health Trip panel.